A Spectral Algorithm for Latent Dirichlet Allocation
Animashree Anandkumar, Dean P. Foster, Daniel Hsu, Sham M. Kakade, Yi-Kai Liu
(Submitted on 30 Apr 2012- revised 17 Jan 2013 (this version, v4))
The problem of topic modeling can be seen as a generalization of the clustering problem, in that it posits that observations are generated due to multiple latent factors (e.g., the words in each document are generated as a mixture of several active topics, as opposed to just one). This increased representational power comes at the cost of a more challenging unsupervised learning problem of estimating the topic probability vectors (the distributions over words for each topic), when only the words are observed and the corresponding topics are hidden.
We provide a simple and efficient learning procedure that is guaranteed to recover the parameters for a wide class of mixture models, including the popular latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. For LDA, the procedure correctly recovers both the topic probability vectors and the prior over the topics, using only trigram statistics (i.e., third order moments, which may be estimated with documents containing just three words). The method, termed Excess Correlation Analysis (ECA), is based on a spectral decomposition of low order moments (third and fourth order) via two singular value decompositions (SVDs). Moreover, the algorithm is scalable since the SVD operations are carried out on k×k matrices, where k is the number of latent factors (e.g. the number of topics), rather than in the d-dimensional observed space (typically d≫k).