Emerging Role of Nicotinamide Riboside in Health and Diseases
Among all the NAD+ precursors, nicotinamide riboside (NR) has gained the most attention as a potent NAD+-enhancement agent. This recently discovered vitamin, B3, has demonstrated excellent safety and efficacy profiles and is orally bioavailable in humans. Boosting intracellular NAD+ concentrations using NR has been shown to provide protective effects against a broad spectrum of pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and hearing loss. In this review, an integrated overview of NR research will be presented. The role NR plays in the NAD+ biosynthetic pathway will be introduced, followed by a discussion on the synthesis of NR using chemical and enzymatic approaches. NR’s effects on regulating normal physiology and pathophysiology will also be presented, focusing on the studies published in the last five years.