White Paper

Cosmetic Neurosurgery, Ethics, and Enhancement

Currently, the neurosurgeon’s ethical obligation remains strictly to the patient with a clearly defi ned pathological disorder, with efforts geared towards treatment for established disease and prevention of morbidity and mortality. As researchers, neurosurgeons should be aware of the ethical principles guiding their work, and be mindful that much needs to change, conceptually and technologically, to tip the risk–benefi t balance towards intervention in nonpathological states.