Importance In 2020 and early 2021, the National Football League (NFL) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) had opted to host games in stadiums across the country. The in-person attendance of games has varied with time and from county to county. There is currently no evidence on whether limited in-person attendance of games has caused a substantial increase in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases.
Background and Aims
The most restrictive non‐pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for controlling the spread of COVID‐19 are mandatory stay‐at‐home and business closures. Given the consequences of these policies, it is important to assess their effects. We evaluate the effects on epidemic case growth of more restrictive NPIs (mrNPIs), above and beyond those of less restrictive NPIs (lrNPIs).